The Rose Chong Door Video

  1. How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

    Consistent with my theme for this Instagram, this video is in response to my previous post, and shows what is inside the door of the Rose Chong costume store in Collingwood. I again used the front camera of my iPhone 7 to author this video. For this video I wanted to show more, as not only is the storefront of Rose Chong interesting, so is what’s behind it’s door. I started off by filming outside of the door, and then my friend opened the door to the inside of the shop. I then take a few different pan shots throughout the store.

    For this video, I decided I would edit together a few short clips to gain further understanding of video authoring within the Instagram app, what are its affordances and constraints? Therefore, initially I utilised Instagram’s inbuilt video camera with the stop and start feature to create the film. However, this process was tedious and frustrating as you could not save previous clips and then put them together, this being a constraint of the app. I eventually just decided to save the videos I took and edit them together later.

  2. How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

    When it came to the process of publishing the video, I initially attempted to piece together the clips I had taken at the store but quickly came to realise that this feature was not afforded by Instagram. Therefore, I decided to utilise an external app to construct the final video for publishing. I used the app ‘iMovie’ which was very straight forward, and allowed me to easily piece together three videos to create the final video for publishing. However, I was unable to share the video directly from the ‘iMovie’ app to Instagram, rather I had to export it and publish it onto the app.

    Instagram’s limitations and constraints when it comes to authoring and publishing video on Instagram significantly impact the process. I think this may be a factor in why videos are less popular on Instagram, as there have been so many constraints. Initially Instagram did not afford authoring, publishing or distributing videos at all. Now, there still remain to be a number of constraints. I think it could be a combination between past and current constraints that have impacted the success of videography on Instagram. Indeed, I have found that my photos on my Instagram page do significantly better than the videos.

    In terms of the caption, I kept it very similar to my previous captions and simply wrote “What’s behind the sparkle” with a few emojis and hashtags. During the publishing process I chose to include the geo-tag ‘Rose Chong’, which is the actual specific location of the video.

    How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

    For this video, I utilised the typical distribution methods that I’ve been consistently using throughout the uploads onto my account. That is, to use the toggle feature during the publishing process to instantaneously cross post across Tumblr and Twitter. In addition to cross posting I also utilised the geo-tag location Rose Chong, however I do not think that this will increase traffic to the post significantly as it is such a specific location. I also employed a number of hashtags for distribution, instead of doing highly specific and relevant hashtags I decided to do some more broad tags such as #shopping and #fashion, as I thought these might attract more traffic to the post.

    Another form of distribution I utilised was to tag my friend who opened the door, as she was featured in the video. When you tag an account on Instagram it comes up in their tagged photos and is therefore another possible distribution method. Although, in this case I’m not sure how successful it was as my friend does not have many followers.

The Rose Chong Door Photo

1.How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

I took this photo at the Rose Chong costume hire store in Collingwood. I decided to go with this location as the shop is colourfully painted and unique looking. My overall theme for my Instagram is colourful, the colour scheme being mainly reds, pinks and oranges. Therefore, I thought that this door would go with the overall aesthetic of my feed. In order to incorporate the colour of the shop front I decided to take a long shot after a few attempts at medium and close up shots. For taking this photograph I used the front camera of my iPhone 7 and utilised the in built camera of the Instagram app. I used a similar methodology to my other posts which was to take a few photos and save them as drafts. I used the ‘Aden’ filter of the Instagram app and also change the contrast a bit to make the colours pop.At this point, I find utilising Instagram to author photographs very easy. The affordances of the Instagram camera as very similar to that of my normal iPhone camera. You can zoom by pulling with two fingers, focus by tapping on the subject and turn flash on with the click of a button. My previous experience with iPhone photography make it an intuitive and easy experience. In comparison to traditional cameras it is definitely a simplified process, which is both good and bad. There are not a lot of options in terms altering settings when taking the photo, which whilst it does make the process a lot simpler, it also does restrict your options. The constraints of Instagram have cultivated a specific aesthetic and themes due to the lack of options. Even with out of app editing, so much of the content is very similar that when someone utilises Instagram’s affordances and constraints to create something unique, it stands out.

2.How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

For the curation process when choosing this image, my main objective was to choose an image that was framed correctly and was in alignment with my overall aesthetic. I believe that the photo I ended up choosing achieved both of those objectives. The caption I chose for this photo in the publishing process was more short and snappy in comparison to my previous captions, simply ‘Door to the wild side’, a reference to the leopard print on the building. I chose to include two relevant emojis as I have with most of the captions to my posts. I then followed the emojis by a number of hashtags relevant to the photo including #fashion, #wild and #leopard. I know for a fact that the #fashion hashtag is very popular as this article listed the most popular hashtags and fashion came up as number four.  Consequently, the photo did get a decent amount of engagement in comparison to the rest of my posts, including a comment. During the publishing process I chose to include the location ‘Collingwood, Victoria, Australia’ as I thought that this location could be fairly popular and therefore generate distribution.

3.How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

For the distribution of this photograph, I again utilised the toggle feature of Instagram to simultaneously cross post the photo onto my Twitter and Tumblr. However, I also wanted to gain an understanding of the distribution process for a different platform. Instagram affords cross posting in the publishing process on Twitter, Tumblr and Facebook. As previously mentioned, I have been cross posting on Twitter and Tumblr, however I do not want to post on my personal Facebook and I’m sure the result would be similar to posting on Twitter and Tumblr. Therefore, I chose to share the Instagram post onto my Pinterest account. I was not sure how to go about it, so I used this article which outlines how to share your Instagram photos to Pinterest. It was actually a relatively simple process, but in saying that it is an extra step in the distribution process, and I’m not sure how much increased traffic it will generate.In addition to cross posting, I also utilised the geo filter and hashtags to distribute the photo. As previously stated, the geofilter ‘Collingwood, Victoria, Australia’, was included to increase traffic. I’d like to gain an understanding of whether popular geotags and hashtags generate more of less traffic in comparison to niche tags that generate less content. The reason I am considering this is because while niche tags reach less people that might mean the users searching the tag a0re more likely to engage with the content. However, using highly popular tags might cause the content to get lost in the mass of other posts. I believe that the Instagram algorithm displays the content in chronological order but the most engaged with posts are at the top of the feed. Therefore, unless the post receives a large amount of engagement it might get lost amidst the other posts.


1.How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

Similar to all of my previous content I chose to author this video with the front facing camera of my iPhone 7. Through the Instagram feed, each post exists in relation to it’s previous and following post. Therefore, this video is a continuation of my previous photo and portrays what is behind the door I displayed in that photo. I found working with a moving subject very difficult, as the dog I was videoing ran away a number of times. I enlisted the help of my partner, but then his shoe was in the video, thankfully Instagram affords cropping which saved that video. Another aspect I found difficult when authoring this content was the lighting. Natural lighting can be temperamental, especially when I opened the door which washed out the dog. I did not manage to find a way to rectify this aspect of the video, but hopefully with more practice I’ll be able to come up with a solution to problems such as these. Similar to all of my previous posts, I utilised the ‘Aden’ filter to keep the aesthetics consistent. In addition to this, I thought I’d mention that I am attempting to have a colourful, warm colour scheme on this Instagram.

2.How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

Instead of continuing with Game of Thrones related content, I decided to move onto another extremely popular content category on Instagram; dogs. I view my Instagram account @adorabledoors as a way to utilise the constraint of having to produce door related content as a framework to explore other popular categories of Instagram content. Therefore, utilising the overall theme of doors and discovering what is behind them to include generic popular content. I am intrigued to find out what type of content drives the most traffic to my page, whether it be #dogsofinstagram, #GoT or #streetart. The jury’s still out on how I might include a food or makeup related post on a door themed Instagram page. As aforementioned, I struggled to take the video and therefore had to go through a few videos before I found one that worked. Once I’d found a video that worked, I chose to include the captions ‘It’s definitely not a dog behind this door’, relating to my previous post. After upload, I decided that I wanted to include a location but wasn’t sure what to geotag it as. Eventually, I decided to include the location ‘Sandringham, Victoria’ which was where the image was taken.

3.How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

Similar to all of my previous posts, I used the toggle feature to easily cross post this video on Twitter and Tumblr. I also used the geofilter, ‘Sandringham, Victoria’, with the intention of generating reach. Although, I’m not sure how many users will actually search for Sandringham on Instagram. Additionally, I chose to include a number of hashtags relevant to the posts, including #dogsofinstagram, #cute and #puppy. I included these hashtags as they are decently popular and therefore I assumed that they would drive traffic to my page. However, a few days after posting this video did not receive much engagement, which is interesting as I thought it would. It could be due to the use of an irregular and therefore limited geofilter. However, it is also interesting to note that thus far the photos I have posted receive significantly more engagement in comparison to the videos. In terms of software affordances, Instagram definitely favours photo production, however I wonder if the algorithm also favours photos? In 2016, Instagram announced that they would change their feed to be algorithmic rather than chronological, this article outlines the significant impacts it had. Many Instagram users were concerned when this algorithm was first introduced, as they were scared it would limit their engagement with their audience and stunt their growth. This constraint that Instagram introduced forced it’s users to be creative in working their way around it through the apps affordances. Utilising popular content themes and relevant hashtags to distribute their content.

The Lion Door Photo

  1. How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

I authored this photo using the front facing camera of my iPhone 7. I utilised the inbuilt camera in the Instagram app. I found that I had to retake the photo a number of times, trying to get the framing right. The square format definitely influenced the way in which I chose to frame the photo and how I chose what to include within the frame. Additionally, I was considering how it would look in relation to the aesthetics of the my profile’s grid. I have decided to take advantage of the grid format on Instagram to cultivate an aesthetic theme for my account. As posts on Instagram exist in rows of three, I have decided to repost the same photo after the video to create a specific visual took on my account.

In the process of authoring the photo I used flash a couple of times but eventually decided not to use flash as it discoloured the door. In terms of editing, I chose to utilise the ‘Aden’ filter again to keep consistency across my feed. Something I noticed this week in the editing process, is how Instagram’s interface portrays its affordances in a straightforward manner that make it easy to understand what you are doing to a photo. I experimented with other editing options and I could easily add or retract changes to the photo without difficulty.

  1. How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

As mentioned in the previous question, I had to retake this particular photo a number of times. I was playing around with framing, distance from the door and lighting. Eventually, I decided to publish this photograph in particular. I chose this photo, which is a close up compared to the other medium shot photos, as I was considering my overall feed. As Instagram profile exist as a grid, it can be helpful to consider how the photo will look in relation to the other posts around it.

I published this photograph on the same day a new Game of Thrones episode was being released. As the content of the photograph was a door with a lion doorknob, I chose to make reference to House Lannister in Game of Thrones who’s sigil is a lion. Therefore, I decided to make a slightly cringe caption full of puns related to Game of Thrones. Comedic content and posts are quite prevalent on Instagram, increasingly gaining recognition and popularity. I also chose to place the location as ‘Casterly Rock’ which is the Lannister estate, a location I did not even know was a possibility until searching it into the locations  whilst in the process of publishing the photo. It’s interesting that Instagram affords it’s users the ability to geotag a figurative location, driving fan related content.

  1. How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

In terms of distribution, I chose to post cross-platform on Twitter and Tumblr. My post had an emphasis on Game of Thrones as it is an extremely popular show, and Game of Thrones related content is very popular on Instagram. I was playing into this popularity through my use of hashtags and the geofilter in order to increase distribution. I included a number of popular hashtags relevant to the photo such as #GoT and #lion. As mentioned in previous posts, these hashtags will generate further reach and attract people to my Instagram page. Game of Thrones posts are ubiquitous on Twitter, often being reposted in articles. Therefore cross posting on Twitter hopefully increases reach and drives traffic to the post.

The Graffiti Door Video

  1. How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

I authored this video with the front facing camera of my iPhone 7. At first I used the Instagram app itself to record the video, but I found it difficult to take multiple films and save them within the app. I found often the video was shaky or I’d accidentally move the camera away from the door handle. This was because I had to film with one hand, as I had to take multiple shots. I think it would be beneficial for the app to afford the ability to create a drafts folder. Eventually I recorded the video with my phone camera, which was frustrating as the phone camera does not afford square video recording. I decided not to edit the video, I just took a few takes until I was content with the final product. I did apply a filter, ‘Aden’, which is the same filter I used on the photograph. As Instagram presents itself in a grid format, I thought consistency across the content would be effective.

My takeaway from this first experience with utilising Instagram to record a video for publishing and distributing was that there are more constraints than affordances when it comes to videos on Instagram. Initially, Instagram was a solely image based platform but expanded to afford the authoring, publishing and distributing of videos. It seems that although it has introduced video related affordances, Instagram’s software still needs to be developed to ease the process of producing videos through the app.

  1. How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

For publishing, I maintained similar features to that of the previous photograph. As aforementioned, I took a few shots until I was content with the final entire video. From there I chose to include the same geofilter, which was ‘China Town, Melbourne’. Additionally, I chose to include the audio as it indicated that the door was locked, additionally I decided to maintain the configure that makes the video play automatically. For the caption, I chose to describe the video and make reference to the previous post. Additionally, I referred to upcoming posts by stating ‘stay tuned for more #door related content’ and a few relevant emojis because everyone likes emojis. Additionally, I chose a cover image that I thought was well framed and fit the profile’s grid. I would like to add here that for some reason once published the quality of the video significantly decreased.

  1. How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

I used distribution methods similar to the post preceding this video. In the publishing process I chose to include a number fairly generic but relevant hashtags that are likely to increase the reach of the video. I did add a few extra such as #melbourne and #laneways. Additionally, I chose to post cross platform on Twitter and Tumblr like my previous post. Something I found interesting was that using the cross posting mechanism afforded by Instagram means the photo does not come up on Twitter, rather it creates a tweet with the same caption and a link to the post whereas the post on Tumblr was basically a replica of the original Instagram post.

It is interesting to note that although I utilised practically the same exact methods of distribution between the photograph and the video, the photo got significantly more likes than the video. Indeed, like I mentioned, I added more hashtags than the original post, hashtags that I thought would generate more traffic. To me this feeds back to the aforementioned affordances and constraints related to video production on the app. It seems to me like videos have not quite caught up to the standards of photographs on Instagram. There are barely any Instagram accounts dedicated solely to videos, it simply is not a major aspect of Instagram yet.

The Graffiti Door Photo

  1. How did you author (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

I authored this photo with the rear facing camera of my iPhone 7. I find that the iPhone produces fairly decent photo quality which makes taking photographs for Instagram much easier. For this photo in particular I decided to explore the city, looking for interesting, colourful and unique doors. I came across a laneway in Chinatown that had extensive graffiti and a number of graffiti adorned doors. I decided to take the photo through the camera in the Instagram app, as the app itself affords photo taking. In this way, Instagram’s affordances amalgamate the process of authoring, publishing and distributing media onto one platform. Indeed, through utilising this specific affordance of Instagram I discovered how to save drafts of posts which allowed me to take multiple photos. From here I went on to choose the photo I found to be most compelling, which was largely based on framing.

The camera function of the app is also pre-formatted in a square which I consider to be helpful. This is because although Instagram now affords its users to post photos of various dimensions, the photos on one’s feed present themselves in a grid format. Therefore, pre-emptively taking the photograph in square format allowed me to see how it would look in the grid, which is an integral aspect of Instagram. The square aspect of Instagram forced me to frame my photo in a different manner than I would have it been rectangle. Doors themselves are rectangle, therefore I took a few steps back to include the door’s surroundings in order to capture the entire door. I did not want to over edit this photograph, so the only changes I made were to add the ‘aden’ filter and decrease the brightness a bit which made the colours pop.

  1. How did you publish (the photo or video) you recorded for upload to Instagram?

When it came to publishing the photo I actually drafted the post a number of times. I found myself changing it and adding to it over a few days before I felt like I wanted to post it. For me personally, the draft affordance of Instagram is extremely helpful as I am very indecisive. As I took this image in China Town, I decided to geo-tag China Town, Melbourne. I geotagged this location in the process of publishing, not after. This is because Instagram makes the process of geotagging very simple and obvious in the stage of preparation for upload. I made the decision to geotag this image not only because it will aid in the photograph’s distribution, but because I thought it was useful. This photo was not just taken from my back door; the location was not an afterthought. If someone came across the image they might like to visit the location themselves, which they could easily do by clicking on the geotag.

With the caption for this image, I decided to make it a call to action in a way. I urged viewers to return to my account to find out what was behind the door in my next post. I did this with the intention of gaining followers who might want to see what is behind the door in the next post.

  1. How did you distribute (the photo or video) you published on Instagram to other social media services?

I used the cross posting affordance of Instagram to instantaneously post the photo across multiple platforms. The publishing page of an Instagram post makes it very easy to publish across multiple platforms at the same time. I simply linked my Twitter and Tumblr accounts and clicked a button, immediately sharing the post on all linked accounts as soon as it was published to Instagram. This mechanism of distribution increases the reach of the post.

Another way I utilised to distribute the photograph was by using hashtags. I used a number of very popular hashtags in my caption in order to further distribute the post, increasing reach and traffic. I also utilised the aforementioned geotag to further distribute the post. Both forms of tagging collate my photo with other photographs so that if an Instagram user were to search the location ‘China Town’ or #graffiti, my post will come up.

Networked Videography

Who is the practitioner (what is their name?) and when were they practicing?

 Rachel Aust is a lifestyle ‘influencer’ from Melbourne, Australia with a background in professional photography. Aust moved onto the world of YouTube and created a channel in 2011 where she posts content with a focus on healthy eating, fitness and minimalism (Aust 2019). She has transferred her skills in photography to author visually appealing and creative videos for her various social media platforms. Her YouTube channel has 660 thousand subscribers and her Instagram @RachelAust has over 168 thousand followers.

What is the title of the photo or video you have chosen to analyse (can you provide a link?) 

The video I will be analysing is titled “5 FAST & HEALTHY WEEKNIGHT DINNERS”

The full caption is:

5 FAST & HEALTHY WEEKNIGHT DINNERS – just uploaded to my channel! Are we doing packable lunches or healthy snacks next?

This is one of the options, and I have been having this a couple of times a week as my afternoon meal because it’s so easy! —
All recipes are also up on #easyhealthymeals#easymealprep #vegetarianmeal

With the photo or video, you are examining when was it produced (date)?

The video was produced on the 16th of April 2019.

How was the photo or video authored?

Aust has produced a recipe video for Instagram which is an excerpt from her YouTube video. Aust uses a variety of equipment to produce her videos and evidently cares about high quality production standards. She does not specifically outline what equipment she used for this video but does provide information on the technology she utilises most regularly on her website. From this information I can assume that she used a canon 6D mkII or 5D mkIV. She has a wide variety of different lenses and it’s likely that she used a combination of them to produce this video (Aust 2019). This is assumed because of the variety of shot types, varying depth of fields and focus which indicates a variety of lenses used. The video commences with a top down angle to showcase the meal, this shot type being very popular on Instagram. The video then includes a number of varying close up shots with shallow depth of field to highlight the food she’s using.

This video has been edited specifically for Instagram in accord with its affordances and constraints. The square format being a specific visual aspect of Instagram as well as the one-minute limit. Another affordance of Instagram is that users have to click the video to turn the sound on, therefore, despite Aust editing this video with music she has also authored it to be played without sound. This is evident with the captions utilised throughout the video indicating ingredients. Also, captions are very popular on Instagram videos and photos recently and it is likely she is also playing into this trend. To edit her videos Aust utilises the program Final Cut Pro.

Additionally, this video was authored with the feed of Instagram in mind. Often on Instagram users will have themes on their accounts. This means that each post visually relates to the post before and after it, or every post in the feed. In the case of Rachel Aust, her current theme is neutral golden and brown tones. The thumbnail of this video keeps in accordance with Aust’s theme.

How was the photo or video published?

This video was published on Instagram, a platform that was originally for photographs but now affords video publishing as well. As I mentioned in the previous question, this video was produced for and originally published to YouTube but edited for the purpose of being on Instagram. Therefore, the affordances of Instagram impacted the way in which it was edited.

As much as Instagram restricts videos from being more than sixty seconds, users of social media also more likely to engage more with shorter videos (Wochit 2016). Therefore, the fast paced editing of this video and the way that it was edited to showcase the final product in the first shot highlights how it was produced with the intention of being on Instagram.

Additionally, new media and social platforms have allowed for highly specific content to reach niche audiences. Aust creates videos for a highly specific audience, one that is health conscious but also has interest in minimalism and fashion. Her ability to tap into this audience is through the use of social platforms like Instagram.

How was the photo or video distributed?

This video was published on Instagram which means that it was immediately received by Rachel’s followers on their feeds as the platform essentially combines publishing with distributing in one place. It is obvious that the content within the video was produced with the idea of reaching her existing audience on Instagram but also in a way that makes it shareable. Instagram affords sharing, and as this video was a recipe video it is shareable content. A follower of Aust might see the recipe and then share it with a friend who then shares it with another friend. This new way of distribution is highly Instagram specific as the platform so easily affords sharing.

Another way the content was distributed was through Aust’s various channels. The longform version of this video was uploaded to YouTube which linked to her Instagram and website. The Instagram post was embedded into her website in the ‘Follow Me’ section and the Instagram video caption linked to the website. All this cross-platform linking allows for traffic to be driven between her various platforms generating an increased reach.

Additionally, the caption of the video includes three hashtags relating to the video including #easyhealthymeals, #easymealprep and #vegetarianmeals. Utilising these hashtags at the end of the video serves as another form of distribution within the Instagram app. This is because these hashtags allow for users who do not follow Aust to find this video through searching the hashtag.


Aust, R 2019, ‘Technology’, Rachel Aust, viewed 1 May 2019, <>

Aust, R 2019, ‘About Rachel’, Rachel Aust, viewed 1 May 2019,<>

Wochit 2016, ‘Why are short-form videos so effective on social?’, Wochit, viewed 1 May 2019, <>

Instagram Photography

Who is the practitioner (what is their name?) and when were they practicing?

David Guttenfelder is an American photographer born in 1969. Guttenfelder is a professional photographer, former Chief Asia for Associated Press and current photographer for National Geographic. Guttenfelder has been practicing as a professional photographer for more than twenty years and has a focus on conflict and culture, known for his work in North Korea. Additionally, Guttenfelder is also an “influencer and industry leader in smartphone photography and social media” (Guttenfelder 2019). His Instagram account @dguttenfelder features photographs taken only with his smartphone and has over 1 million followers.

What is the title of the photo or video you have chosen to analyse (can you provide a link?) 

The photo I have chosen to analyse has no title but does have a caption to provide a description and context. The caption is “North Korean children perform cartwheels during a newly debuted “Mass Games” event at Pyongyang’s May Day Stadium to mark the 70th anniversary of the founding of this nation. On assignment for @npr in the DPRK”.

With the photo or video, you are examining when was it produced (date)? 

This photograph was produced on the 15th September 2018 at a ‘Mass Games’ event at the May Day stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea.

How was the photo or video authored?

David Guttenfelder is known for utilising his smart phone to capture his photographs, this particular photo having been taken on an iPhone. When on professional trips, Guttenfelder uses his iPhone in conjunction with his DSLR camera. Guttenfelder states that the iPhone has “changed the way I photograph” and that “I instinctively shoot things on my smartphone first. I see square now.” (Guttenfelder, cited in Raab 2017). The iPhone is lighter and more discreet which, in a country like North Korea, is useful when in sensitive situations (Konbini 2016). Through the use of his iPhone Guttenfelder might be able to show a side of North Korea that has not been portrayed before. The photograph I have chosen in particular captures a unique moment in North Korea, the symmetry and striking colours against the grey background are almost mesmerising. The photograph does not appear to be edited and gives the feeling as though it was simply taken in the moment and immediately uploaded on Instagram.

How was the photo or video published?

This photo was published to Instagram, a large social networking site with a focus on visual content, predominantly photographs. It is likely that Guttenfelder produced this photo with the intention of publishing on Instagram in mind. Most Instagram photos have square dimensions and therefore often ‘Instagramers’ take photos with the idea that they will be square. Indeed, the iPhone even has a square feature on the camera app. Guttenfelder says Instagram “pushes you to see things you wouldn’t have seen otherwise. There’s a visual language in our photographic history of certain kinds of pictures that have been shot in square. We use it for portraiture a lot and for still lifes. It has a whimsical strangeness to it.” (Guttenfelder, cited in Ryan 2014).

Moreover, he views Instagram as a place where he can directly connect to his followers and considers it separate to but coexisting with his portfolio of photographs. He says that “it’s a space where people will come and listen to you if you are willing to share what you truly care about.” (Guttenfelder, cited in Raab 2017). In the case of this photograph, it being published on Instagram allows for Guttenfelder’s audience catch a glimpse into the everyday life in North Korea, a place rather foreign and unknown to the rest of the world.

How was the photo or video distributed?

The photo being published onto Instagram allows for instantaneous distribution. As soon as the photo was published it would have come up on the feed of Guttenfelder’s followers. From here the photograph is easily able to be shared through the Instagram app itself as well as screen shotted and redistributed by his followers.

Additionally, this photograph was geotagged with the location Pyongyang, Korea. This geotag location groups the photo with other geotagged photos with this location, allowing it to have a greater reach. This is because someone could search the location on Instagram and this photo would come up. Instagram affording this geotag feature creates “an unprecedented map…visually charting entire neighborhoods and cities previously unseen through Western eyes” (Laurent 2014).

The hashtags used in the comment section of the photo also generate further distribution of the photograph as Instagram users can search for the hashtags. Similar to geotagging, hashtagging also collates photographs.

Guttenfelder also has other social media platforms that link to his Instagram, driving traffic to the page and therefore the photo. He also has a website which showcases his photographs and links to his Instagram.


Guttenfelder, D 2019, ‘About’, viewed 18 April 2019, <>

Raab, J 2017, ‘How These 6 Instagram Photographers Got a Million Followers’, Time, viewed 18 April 2019 <>

Ryan, K 2014, ‘David Guttenfelder on the Second Camera’, The New York Times, viewed 18 April 2019, <>

Laurent, O 2014, ‘David Guttendelder: The Photographer as Explorer’, Time, viewed 18 April 2019, <>

Electronic Superhighway

Who is the practitioner (what is their name?) and when were they practicing?

Nam June Paik was a globally recognised video producer, most renowned for his manipulation of the television, recreating perceptions of what the television could do. Paik was considered the “father of video art” and mainly practiced in the 1960s when he joined Fluxus; an international community of artists. Paik produced various types of work including video sculptures, performances and installations (Smithsonian American Art Museum 2009).

What is the title of the photo or video you have chosen to analyse (can you provide a link?) 

I have chosen to analyse Paik’s work “Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii”.

With the photo or video, you are examining when was it produced (date)?

 This work was produced in 1995 in the U.S.

 How was the photo or video authored?

Paik’s Electronic Superhighway predominantly consists of a 51 channel closed circuit video installation, but the work also includes neon lighting and other materials. To be specific, it comprises of 336 televisions, 50 DVD players, 3,750 feet of cable and 575 feet of neon lighting (Li 2019). It is physically divided into the various states of the U.S.A, the cable shaped to represent each state geographically. Paik included looping videos on televisions he believed represented each state. For example, clips from The Wizard of Oz for Kansas.

The video sculpture represents Paik’s perception of the diverse and varied USA, representing cultural and physical aspects of each state. The underlining understanding of each state through the impact of media technology (Smithsonian Museum of American Art 2015). Paik coined the term Electric Superhighway, referring to his prediction that technology would allow for global connectedness (Ryan 2017). This video sculpture is a U.S. specific representation of that prediction.

How was the photo or video published?

This work was produced for the purpose of being art. Paik previously produced the work Electronic Superhighway for the 1993 Venice Biennale (Ryan 2017). This work included a bank of televisions showcasing videos from a variety of sources. In response to this work Paik produced the Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, derived from his previous work but much more expansive. This work was produced to be not only visually appealing but also to convey a specific message and, as most art does, have various interpretations. In 1967 Paik was commissioned by the Rockefeller Foundation who granted him money to cover cost of living and art materials (Rockefeller Foundation 2019). Therefore he was in a position to produce art for basically whatever purpose he wanted. Assumably, this specific piece was produced with the intention of being displayed in a art gallery or museum as he did in fact gift this work to the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

How was the photo or video distributed?

Electronic Highway is permanently on exhibit at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. This is a very large museum in Washington which displays historical and modern American art. The museum received 2.6 million visits in 2013 (Smithsonian Institution 2014) indicating the large reach Paik’s work has on display there. Additionally, the museum has numerous websites which feature articles on the Electronic Highway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii such as this article and this one. Having this digital presence allows for greater reach of Paik’s work as people might visit the website and happen to see one of those articles attracting them to visit Paik’s video sculpture at the museum.


Smithsonian American Art Museum 2015, Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, viewed 13 April 2019, <>

Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian American Art Museum Fact Sheet, 2014, viewed 13 April 2019, <>

Smithsonian American Art Museum 2009, Nam June Paik, viewed 13 April 2014, <>

Ryan, T 2017, Nam June Paik, Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, viewed 13 April 2019, <>

Li, J 2019, ‘Nam Jun Paik Artist Overview and Analysis’, The Art Story, viewed 13 April 2019,  <>

Rockerfeller Foundation 2019, Our History, viewed 13 April 2019, <>


Enfants Miliciens

Who is the practitioner (what is their name?) and when were they practicing?
Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French photographer who aimed to capture “the decisive moment”, and was considered a pioneer in candid photography. Bresson considered himself to be a surrealist photographer but was widely viewed to be a photojournalist. Bresson initially studied painting but then turned to photography, really starting to take it seriously in the 1930s (Moma 2010).

What is the title of the photo or video you have chosen to analyse (can you provide a link?) 

The photo I have chosen to analyse is Enfants Miliciens.

With the photo or video, you are examining when was it produced (date)?

This photo was produced in 1958 in Shiu Shin, China.

How was the photo or video authored?

Unfortunately, I was unable to find which specific camera Bresson used to take this photo, however it is highly likely that he utilised a Leica camera with a 50mm lens, as this was well known to be his preferred camera and lens. The reason for which he enjoyed utilising this camera was because it was lightweight, small and quiet which allowed him to be unobtrusive when taking street photography (Malone 2012). The 50mm lens is considered to be the closest to capture what is seen by the human eye.

This photo was taken whilst Bresson was touring in communist China in 1958, wherein he took both colour and black and white photographs. This specific photo is in black and white, which was what he was mostly known for, having produced very few colour photos. This photo is an example of Bresson’s said “decisive moment”, the way in which it was framed and the precise moment it was taken to portray a meaningful and thought out photograph. Bresson was known for not cropping his photographs, not altering them post production. Therefore, it is interesting to consider how he framed this photograph, wherein the stacked guns, the boys playing behind them and the Chinese calligraphy are all reminiscent of each thing, mirrored in some ways. Bresson had a reputation for considering the geometry of his photographs, how each object is situated in relation to the others in the frame. The choice to have the guns and the children in shot also has a lot of connotations in representing communist China at that time, the title, translating to ‘child soldiers’, reflects this.

How was the photo or video published?

The photo was published by Life magazine, who printed an issue of Life titled ‘Red China’ in 1958.

“With the perceptiveness for which he is famous,” LIFE declared of the photographer’s work in China, “Cartier-Bresson has shown how the Chinese individually react and live amid the oppressive regimentation imposed on them.” (Ronk 2012)

It is interesting to consider how Bresson might have been impacted through his work having a specific purpose- to be printed in a magazine. His role was to “[capture] the authentic experience of a strange place” because “photographs are records and documents which pin down the changing world experience” (Wells 2015). Additionally, the way in which Life magazine was formatted, as it was “condensed into captions for 50 pages of photographs” and “printed on heavily coated paper” (New World Encyclopedia 2018). He must have considered the impact of the photo on the magazines audience, also considering how the photograph might contribute to the narrative Life wanted to depict through his photographs.

How was the photo or video distributed?

This photograph was published in Life Magazine, which is an American magazine and therefore predominantly circulated in America. The magazine did publish international editions, however there is limited information as to whether ‘Red Colour’ (1958) was published internationally. Therefore, it can be assumed that it was marketed to the American public, distributed through news stands and subscription mail. When ‘Red Colour’ (1958) was published, Life was renowned for it’s quality of photography and coverage of world issues (New World Encyclopedia 2018).

We live in a world now where everyone is or at least can be a photographer. Distribution is not an issue anymore as the internet is readily available as a useful distributer.

“we are not just photographers today: we have become distributers, activists and curators of the light traces immobilised on photo-sensitive surfaces” (Kuc & Zylinska 2016)

The photograph I have chosen to analyse can be found throughout the internet, posted on art websites and blogs. But it is amidst the hundreds of thousands of other images, what sets it apart is the photographer’s continued notoriety. His reputation in the field of art and photojournalism, people are still actively seeking out his work and finding it on the internet, which has preserved his work as a photographer.


Moma 2010, Henri Cartier Bresson: The Modern Century, viewed 5 April 2019, <>

Malone 2012, Would Henri Cartier-Bresson have used a cameraphone?, The Guardian, viewed 6 April 2019, <>

New World Encyclopedia 2018, Life (magazine), viewed 6 April 2019, <>

Kuc K & Zylinska J 2015, Photomediations: A Reader, Open Humanities Press, London

Wells, L 2015, Photography: A Critical Introduction, 5th ed, Routledge, New York

Ronk, L 2012, Henri Cartier-Bresson: ‘Red China’ in Color, 1958, Time, viewed 6 April 2019, <>