Assignment 2- Review
Name: Taras Rego s3604578
I declare that in submitting all work for this assessment I have read, understood and agree to the content and expectations of the assessment declaration – https://www.rmit.edu.au/students/support-and-facilities/student-support/equitable-learning-services
Networked Media Assignment 2: Review
Word count: 1091 words
a) Provide a definition for ‘analogue photography’.
Analogue photography can is the process of producing a physical representation of an image formed by light exposure. Analogue refers to the process in which “physical properties can be stored in another ‘analogous’ physical form” (Lister et al. 2009, pp. 17). In relation to analogue photography this refers to the way in which light interacts with the chemicals to physically record an image on film. Subsequently, photography is “categorised as documentation or duplication and these can sometimes be at odd with one another” (Cummens 2007, pp. 5). This can be seen through the example of analogue photographer Henri Cartier Bresson, whose work illustrates how photography can be “suspended between art and social practice” (Kuc & Zulinska 2016, pp. 1). Bresson attempted to portray current social situations, yet his choices to include or omit objects within the frame constructed a photograph to serve a specific purpose.
b) Provide a definition for ‘analogue video’.
Analogue video is the recording of light to create a physical form of a moving image. Much the same as analogue photography, analogue video can be categorised by the conversion of input data to a physical object, a component of all analogue media products (Lister et al. 2009, pp. 17). In the case of analogue video, the optical recording of light is recorded onto the surface of a film strip through a photo-chemical process. However, analogue video distinguishes itself from photography “by the fact that the transitions between images are central” (Spielmann 2007, pp. 4). Analogue video is categorised by the movement, continuity and progression of visual images. At the time when analogue video production was most prevalent it was largely used for two purposes, personal use and commercial television use. Video art was not common, Nam June Paik being considered the founder of video art through his manipulation and use of analogue video for the purpose of art.
c) Provide a definition for ‘networked photography’.
Networked photography can be defined as the practice of capturing an image with a digital device and is a progression from its original counterpart, analogue photography. Networked photography “records light impulses as electronic charges stored on a memory disk” (Cummins 2007). It does not exist as a physical object but rather as input data and numbers. With the introduction of new digital technology and the internet, analogue photography evolved. Now, “camera phones are the default consumer camera of choice” (Palmer 2014, pp. 22), even professional photographers, such as David Guttenfelder, are utilising their camera phones to produce photographs. Networked photography has become ubiquitous through the use of the internet as a publication and distribution mechanism.
d) Provide a definition for ‘networked video’.
Networked video is the digital process of recording moving visual images for the purpose of being uploaded to the online network. Technological developments have transformed and proliferated the practice of producing and distributing videos. Moreover, it has generated movement towards increased consumption of personal “amateur videos” (Berry 2018), in both their style and quality. Social platforms can allow for specific and varied “different kinds of long and short, original, redacted, and recombinant video, watched in a much wider range of situations” (Goggin 2013, pp. 148). An example being the way in which network videographer Rachel Aust provides niche video content for her target audience, utilising social media platforms to do so.
e) Provide definitions for the terms ‘authoring’, ‘publishing’ and ‘distributing’.
The term authoring refers to the creation of a media product such as a photograph or video. It is the process of how the photograph or video is produced from concept creation to the equipment utilised to create it.
Publishing can be considered as the process of broadcasting or displaying a photograph or video within a specific platform or medium. A creator’s work could be published in an art gallery or on an online platform such as Instagram.
Distributing considers the way in which a creator’s media product reaches its viewership. It is the process in which a piece of media is shared with its potential audience, generating the possible reach it will have.
f) What differences and similarities did you discover between the way analogue and networked photos are authored, published and distributed?
There are a number of differences between the way analogue and networked photos are authored, published and distributed. Authoring analogue photos was a long and precise process compared to the straightforward way networked photos can be produced through the use of phones. Additionally, publication and distribution options were limited to art galleries and news publications for analogue photographers. The network has broken down these limiting publication barriers, as phones “are capable not only of recording and displaying images but also instantly sharing them” (Palmer 2014, pp. 22). In the digital age there are numerous distribution channels and options, an example being the re-distribution mechanism on Instagram which affords its users to re-post a photograph, increasing its reach and distribution.
In spite of the number of differences between analogue and networked photography, some similarities still remain. In terms of how the photographs are authored, light remains to be an essential factor and defining characteristic (Kuc & Zylinska 2015, pp. 11). Additionally, the way in which photos are authored to serve artistic and social purposes remains similar. Both Bresson and Guttenfelder took photographs that could be considered both art and social commentary. The way in which publishing and distributing effects the final product is also relevant in both analogue and digital photography, as how a photographer intends to publish their work might impact how they author it.
g) What differences and similarities did you discover between the way analogue and networked videos are authored, published and distributed?
Analogue and network videos differ greatly in terms of how they are authored, published and distributed. One of the main differences in authoring, is the devices used to record video and how they have changed in the digital age. Additionally, the editing process is vastly different compared between the two forms of media. The fluid nature of digital media and expanding technology make networked video easy to manipulate compared to editing analogue video which was a tedious and laborious process (Lister et al. 2009, pp. 19). The potential barrier of publication and distribution has been removed in the digital age, vastly changing these processes. This has given way to endless possibilities and processes, one of which being the way in which creators can reach niche audiences through tagging.
Although there are a number of differences between analogue and networked videos there are some similarities. In terms of authoring, both networked and analogue videos rely on physical technology (Berry 2018, pp. 19). Also, both analogue and networked video are authored for a similar purpose, to tell a story (Goggin 2013). It is also interesting to note there has been a growing trend in authoring analogue video but digitising it to publish and distribute through the network. This of convergence of old and new media indicates the blurred lines between the two practices and the products they each produce.
Lister, M, Dovey, J, Giddings, S, Grant, I & Kelly, K 2009, New Media: A Critical Introduction, Routledge, New York, pp. 16-21.
Cummins, J 2007, ‘Digital versus Analog Photography: a comparative analysis’, Waterford Institute of Technology, pp. 4-5.
Kuc K & Zylinska J 2016, Photomediations: A Reader, Open Humanities Press, London, pp. 7-16.
Palmer, D 2014, ‘Mobile Media Photography’, The Routledge Companion to Mobile Media, Routledge, New York
Goggin, G 2013, ‘Mobile Video: Spreading Stories with Mobile Media’, The Routledge Companion to Mobile Media, Routledge, New York, pp. 146-156.
Berry, TB 2018, ‘Videoblogging Before Youtube’, Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam, pp. 9-22.
Speilmann, Y 2007, Video: The Reflexive Medium, MIT Press, Cambridge, Masschusetts, pp 1-6.
Wells, L 2015, Photography: A Critical Introduction, 5th ed, Routledge, New York, pp. 9-27.