Inventor of Hypertext?

After writing my previous post, I went on to do a little more research about hypertext. I came across a site by Webopedia about hypertext and was quite frustrated when I came across an inaccuracy within their research.

According to the site, hypertext is “a special type of database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960’s.”

Didn’t we just read that it was invented in the thirties by Vannevar Brush?


The previous few weeks, we have read and blogged about design fiction, discussing and interpreting the way we might go about judging what is considered ‘real’ within the fiction.
However we are moving forward from this concept towards the more specific hypertext theory. As Adrian declares, this is because hypertext is a networked writing structure, it predates the World Wide Web (more commonly known as simply the web – which is a system of interlinked hypertext documents), and because many of its ideas provide an excellent way to approach how to theorise the Web not as technologies but as people who want to be able to narrate things.


Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic device with references (hyperlinks) to other texts which the readers can immediately access, or where the texts can be revealed progressively on multiple levels of detail.


According to the extract from Douglas, J. Yellowlees ‘The End of Books – Or Books Without End?’, he claimed that hypertext is as much a concept as it is a form of technology.
While developments of hypertexts may be fairly recent, it has actually existed for many decades.
The idea of hypertexts was actually born back in the thirties by Vannevar Brush. The creator, Vannevar Brush, believed that books and libraries were beginning to hinder research just as much as it was helping it. So, he created a Memex which stemmed from a belief that machines could model the processing of information by reproducing the neural structures in the brain that linked information together by association rather than by the linear logic of the printed book. Readers who used the Memex would be able to collect snippets of information from a huge variety of sources, linking them together with ‘trails’ and even inserting their own comments or notes.




How mobile devices have changed the way we consume media

Mobile phones have revolutionised how consumers access media content. They have changed the way we access and read news because they are convenient, portable and produce real time news, ahead of TV’s and newspapers.
It is now possible to check the news online for free instead of buying a newspaper everyday.
Additionally, newspapers and magazine have created apps which offer the publisher a means of charging for the content that their websites produce for free.

Statistics have shown that we spend the most time out of our day on our computers, however this is very closely followed by our mobile phones, which are ahead of TV! According to the same statistics the average mobile web user consumes 7.2 hours of media daily and mobile devices represent a whopping 27% of this time!

Mobile devices are used throughout the day à when we are lying in bed, waiting for something, while watching TV, commuting for example on public transport, spending time with family, in the bathroom, while shopping and even at social gatherings!

Mobile content consumed by various genders is relatively equal across all platforms, for example both males and females spend approximately the same amount of time on social media, entertainment and games

Additionally, mobile phones have the ability to impact consumer behaviours throughout the purchase path by introducing you to something new, providing you with a better option and informing you of nearby products.

90210 season finale?

It’s time to have a much needed rant! I occupied myself this winter, on the cold and rainy days, by engrossing myself in the TV series 90210, only to be exceptionally disappointed by the season finale. I’m not sure about you, but when I absorb myself in a series my one wish is that there is a happy ending.

However, there is a tragic ending, as my favourite character silver is diagnosing with cancer. Worst ending ever?
There is no resolution, no silver lining. The girl simply has cancer, and that’s it! To make it even worse, the episode before, Silver finds out that the surrogate mother of her child has lost the baby.
Naomi does not end up with Max, and we never get to see whether Annie and Liam end up together (and don’t break up for the fifteenth time).

Surely the CW could have taken a leaf out of Gossip girls book and forked out a few extra bucks to shoot a flash forward ending.

“As We May Think” – Vannevar Bush 

In Vannevars article “As We May Think”, he urges that men of science should attempt to make more accessible our incomprehensive store of knowledge. He asserts in his article that for years inventions have extended mans physical powers rather than the power of their minds. For example; hammers multiply the power of the wrists and microscopes sharpen the eye.

Now, according to Dr. Bush, inventions are at hand which have the ability for man to have access over the heritable knowledge of the ages. Additionally, scientists have worked together, sharing their knowledge, rather than creating a war, in order to work in effective partnership.

Lasting benefits of man’s use of science and newly invented instruments include:

  • Increased control of the material environment
  • Improved food, clothing, shelter
  • Increased security
  • Increased knowledge of humans biological processes so that he has a progressive freedom from disease and an increased span of life.
  • Overall improved mental health
  • Science has had the ability to provide swift communication between individuals.

Vannevar, believes that our methods of transmitting and reviewing the results of research are generations old. History shows that although inventors had the right ideas, the economic situation were against them. For example, two centuries ago Leibnitz invented a calculating machine, but it could not come into use because the labor involved in constructing it exceeded the labor to be saved by its use.
Nowadays however machines can be constructed with great economy and effort. According to Vannevar, “The world has arrived at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability.”

Bali Travel

So I guess its time to get the ball rolling and start blogging about something other than networked media. So for anyone traveling to Bali in then near future, here are some tips for things to do, places to see and where to eat.

In terms of restaurants, dining in Bali is generally a highlight. Restaurants in Bali offer travellers a wide variety of excellent dishes which satisfy every budget and taste. Surprisingly, authentic Balinese food is rarely enjoyed by the island’s visitors, simply because it is rarely served.
The best part about eating out in Bali, is that your can experience delicious, decadent meals from the top restaurants for extremely cheap prices. Some of highlight restaurants I dined at include; La Lucciola, Sardine (absolute favourite – went back 3 times) and Metis.
My favourite restaurant, Sardine, not only provides a fantastic feed, it also provides an experience you will never forget. It is a charming restaurant, housed in a striking bamboo structure, overlooking a vista of endless rice paddocks.

A beautiful, must visit beach, is at Uluwartu. Uluwartu is a very well known destination among surfing enthusiasts. Most of the surf is suitable for advanced surfers only, however there are locals who you can hire surfboards from and are willing to help beginners brave the surf.   While at Uluwartu, Blue Point is also a great point to visit, with amazing views.

If you like massages, then Bali is the perfect place for you. With $5, 60 minutes massages literally everywhere you look! But if you are willing to spend a little more, make sure you have a hot stone massage at one of the top hotels spas, where you will experience 5 star treatment.

The kuta region is the centre of Bali’s nightlife. Entrance to the bars are all free with cheap drinks at the bars, clubs and restaurants. Go to SkyGarden! It has 5-6 levels with different music and shows and an interesting mix of individuals.



Design Fiction

Does design fiction predict our future, or is it simply a productive tool for influencing the future.
Sci-fi authors are trying to write about the future and shed some light on possible ways in which our society and culture may develop in the future. Design fiction uses the techniques of fiction and drama in order to ‘test’ the future and see what future technologies might work in our society.

Recently, science-fiction has predicted the homes of the future. Many new technologies are popping up in seemingly ‘normal’ homes inspired by familiar scenarios from science fiction films, TV shows and even novels.
As Bruce Sterling reveals in his article,,  in the 2001 film, Space Odyssey, ‘the guy is holding what’s clearly an ipad’. Additionally it was involved in recent lawsuits between Apple and Samsung.

Link to YouTube Video: Ipad in Space Odyssey

In this case, it could be possible that companies such as Apple and Samsung have used the design fiction from the film as a productive, influential tool for the designs.

The worlds which are created in futuristic films and novels also play a role in debating our current science, as it feeds our scientific imagination as we consider what is possible.
Although perhaps design fiction is not a prediction of the future, I do believe that it opens our eyes to the opportunities and hazards of new technologies. It articulates our fears and desires for the future hence innovating our future.


Affliction and Social Media

This week’s unlecture raised important points regarding media law about what you are blogging and commenting about. To me this seems pretty straight forward; don’t involve yourself in slander or child pornography right? As if I’d ever do anything like that, so surely I have nothing to worry about? But media laws obviously go a lot further than that.

I did some research and took a particular interest in affliction and Social Media. As a Facebook and Instagram user I observe tasteless comments mindlessly posted about sensitive issues on social media on a daily basic.
Anonymity has become a powerful force for individuals who believe that they can hind behind a screen making them feel invincible and invisible. However on sites like Facebook, with our real identities reveals, individuals still misbehave believing that what happens on the internet will stay on the internet.

So the big question that I want to know is why we are often so aggressive online? I believe it is because we are less reserved or self-conscious because we do not see the reaction of the person that are being address of offended online.
People need to remember that they communicate online they are still speaking out loud.

Although technology is changing society, social rules still exist. There is nothing new under the sun!

Blogs in Media Education

Blogs in Media Education – By Adrian Miles (A blog about blogging!)

Blogs in Media Education is a blog about blogging, aimed at those who are wondering about how blogs may be relevant to their professional practice as a teacher, or as a classroom tool.

According to Adrian Miles, a blog is a wed based publication which traditionally consists of varying lengths of entries which are published online and classified as ‘pots’. As I have recently learnt in my first networked media tutorial, a blog has: a name; a blogroll (which is a list and links of other blogs or websites which the blogger uses); recent comments; recent posts; an about me section about the blogger; and numerous other assets which can be modified to suits the bloggers interests.

A blog is a way of developing informal and loquacious posts which can be shared with the public. These blogs can be interlinked and networked between blogs, allowing individuals to have a voice and express opinions to the public.
There are many reasons why individuals use blogs. One of the main reasons, is to educate individuals. In terms of how blogs are used in teaching, they can be used to document your practice, to encourage and support reflective and process based learning, to nurture peer supports and learning, to provide a record of achievement, in assisting idea creation, supporting collaboration, and finally in developing multiliteracies that allow participation within contemporary information ecologies as creators, rather than being limited to being passive consumers.
This reflects the use of our networked media blog which is a place to discuss, note, record, document, discuss, argue about, reflect upon, interrogate and critique what we learn through readings, classes and lectures.

As I have recently learnt, it is important to monitor what you post on your blog or others blogs because anything which is posted on the internet is there for life as a digital footprint is created.
The internet is a paradigm shift in communication technologies which has positive and negative aspects. It allows individuals to have a voice through their online portfolio and online identity. Individuals have the ability to create an online personality which they can shape and control through their blog posts or comments on others posts. They provide ample opportunities for individuals to participate and connect with others who are part of the online world, educating themselves within the information rich, interlinked and emergent network.

Chris Argyris – Biography and Theories

Chris was born in Newark, New Jersey on the 16th of July, 1923.
During the Second World War he joined the Signal Corps in the US Army eventually becoming a Second Lieutenant.
He went to University at Clark, graduating with a degree in Psychology in 1947 and went on to gain an Masters in Psychology and Economics from Kansas University and a Ph.D. in organisational behaviour from Cornell University in 1951.

Chris made a large contribution to the development of our appreciation of organisational learning, and, deepened our understanding of experiential learning. He developed models with Donald Schon, of the single-loop and double-loop learning, and how these models translate into contrasting models of organisational learning systems.

His work has influenced thinking about the relationships of people and organisational learning and action research.

His early work explored the impact of formal and organisational structures, control systems and management on individuals.

Chris Argyris’ research lead to him producing books entitled, Personality and Organisation and Integrating the Individual and the Organisation.
He shifted his focus to organisational change, then moved on to an inquiry into the role of the social scientist as both researcher and actor.
His fourth major area of research was undertaken with Donald Schon which was focused around individual and organisational learning.

In addition to writing and researching, Chris Argyris was an influential teacher.

Theories of action: Theory in use and espoused theory
Argyris and Schon suggest that two theories of action are involved.
A theory of action is first a theory: ‘its more general properties are properties that all theories share, and the most general criteria that apply to it – such as generality, centrality and simplicity – are criteria applied to all theories’.
The former can be described as theories-in-use. They govern actual behaviours and tend to be tacit structures. Their relation to action ‘is like the relation of grammar-in-use to speech; they contain assumptions about self, others and environment’.
The words we use to convey what we, do or what we would like others to think we do can then be called espoused theory. This is the theory of action to which he gives allegiance, and which upon request he communicates to others . The theory that actually governs his actions is this theory-in-use.

Single-loop and double-loop learning
Learning involves a detection and correction of error. Single-loop learning is when given or chosen goals, values, plans and rules are operationalized rather than questioned. It occurs when error detection and correction permits the organisation to carry on its present policies or achieve its present objectives.

Alternatively, double-loop learning is to question governing variables themselves and to subject them to critical scrutiny.

Conclusions of Agyris’ Study
It is assumed that ‘good’ learning ‘takes place in a climate of openness where political behaviour is minimised’.
We need to be distrustful of bipolar models like Model I and Model II. This is because they set up an ‘either-or’ orientation.
The notion of double-loop leaning helps us to approach some of the more taken-for-granted aspects of organisations and experiences.